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Page history last edited by Gardener 13 years, 4 months ago

Beneficial Organisms

Attracting Beneficial Insects with Native Flowering Plants - MSU Ext. Bulletin E - 2973, Jan 07; 5 p PDF; excellent photos/info., includes predators, parasotoids, and bees.

Plants that Attract Beneficials and Pests and Associated Beneficial Insects  - PSU; chart form. Be sure to avoid using any INVASIVE PLANTS listed on these sites. Invasive plants decrease our biodiversity. Check the Invasive Plants page to be sure.

Beneficial Organisms in Home and Garden Information Center's Plant Diagnostic Website - U of MD: photos of beneficial organisms and text stating what insects they eat.

Biological Control: A Guide to Natural Enemies in North America - Cornell U.; photos and descriptions of biocontrol agents of insect, disease and weed pests.


Biological Control Sources

Insect Parasitic Nematodes - national source list by OSU, includes Harrisburg co.: BioLogic Company - Harrisburg co.; search by products, pests, biocontols organisims in left column.

Using Insect Parasitic Nematodes, General Guidelines - OSU; timing, storage, etc.


Butterflies and Moths

Butterflies and Moths of North America – Montana State U.; images, species by county.


PA map search by county *takes a few seconds to load but well worth the wait.

Developed by scientists at the USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Includes photos, ID, life history, caterpillar host, adult food, habitat.


Growing Degree Days GDD

Average daily temp minus baseline temp of 50° beginning 1 March. Degrees above 50° is cumulative through the season. Negative numbers are ignored. Ex. 80° high + 60° low for a particular day, 140 divided by 2 = 70 – 50 = 20° days for that day. The number is used to predict plant and insect development under normal growing conditions. Unseasonal drought or disease would affect the results.

Daily PA Regional Growing Degree Days – PSU; chart is slow to load; take number from this chart to use with following chart to help determine insect’s life cycle and possible control measures.

Using Growing Degree Days for Insect Management - UNH Cooperative Extension

Using Nature's Signals to Manage Landscape Pests - PSU; in-depth explanation of GDD.


Home insects

Household - PSU Entomology; detailed sheets w//sketch/photos.

Public Health Pest Problem Solvers - PSU IPM

Cornell Guide to Pest Management Around the Home: Cultural methods

Key to Common Household Ants – U of CA

Brown Marmorated Stink Bugs - PSU Entomology Fact Sheet


Insect ID Keys

NCSU key to insects – Center for IPM & NC State.

BugGuide – compiled by naturalists, hosted by Iowa State U.; photos

IDnature guides - MO Botanical Garden & U. of Georgia; scroll down to choose blue link: ants, bees, beetles, butterflies, caterpillars, dragonflies, crane fly, mosquitoes, ticks. Check boxes to narrow search.


Search Engines 

Entomology Fact Sheets – PSU; search feature in upper right corner.

Ohioline Yard & Garden

Plant Pest Handbook Index - CT state gov., searchable by plant 

Fact Sheets - PSU Woody Ornamental IPM; photos and info; search insect common name.


Specific Insects

Armyworm Pseudaleta unipuncta

Armyworm as a Pest of Field Corn - PSU Dept of Entomology Fact Sheet.


Asian Longhorn Beetle

Asian Longhorn Beetle - PSU IPM; discovered in Brooklyn, NY in 1996, now also present in NJ, IL, Toronto, Canada, and Worcester, MA; not yet a pest in PA. Attacks many hardwood trees, such as maple, elm, horsechestnut, ash, birch, poplar, willow.

Asian Longhorn Beetle - DCNR.

Asian Long-Horned Beetle - USDA National Invasive Species Information Center.


Cabbage Maggot 

PSU Entomological Notes   



Carpenter Ants

Carpenter Ants -  PSU Entomological Notes.


Carpenter Bees

Carpenter Bees - PSU Entomological Notes, 2 p PDF, photo/info. HTM

Stinging Insects: Carpenter Bees - Cornell U Master Beekeeper Program, Kathryn Gardner.


Cicada Killer Wasps 

Stinging Insects: Cicada Killer Wasps - Cornell U. The Bee-Files

Rutgers U. source


Dogwood Sawflies Macremphytus tarsatus

Dogwood Sawfly Fact Sheet - PSU Woody Ornamental Fact Sheet; photos/info.

Plant Pest Handbook - CT Agricultural Experiment Station; life cycle and control.

Photos - Aug 14, 2009 blog with excellent photos.


Eastern Tent Caterpillars

PSU Dept of Entomology, Entomology Notes.

PSU Woody Ornamental Integrated Pest Management - Eastern Tent Caterpillar Fact Sheet.

PSU Woody Ornamental Insect, Mite and Disease Management - Includes list of formulations for tent caterpillar management.


Emerald Ash Borer EAB

PSU Ornamental Entomology 

First found in PA in Butler County in June 2007. In Feb 2009 present in Mifflin County, central PA, in addition to sections of western PA. In June 2009 found in Westmoreland County and St. Paul, MN. First noted in the U.S. in Michigan in June 2002 and has now killed 40 million trees in MI, IL, IN, MD, OH, and PA. Unknown source of EAB but may have come in ash wood in cargo ships or in packaging of consumer goods.

The native range of EAB is eastern Russia, northeast China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and Mongolia.  

All species of ash in the plant genus Fraxinus and their cultivars appear to be susceptible to EAB in North America.  It does not attack mountain ash in the plant genus Sorbus

Multinational Emerald Ash Borer Website - detailed info with photos; treatment options detailed.


European pine sawfly

European Pine Sawfly Fact Sheet - PSU Woody Ornamental IPM.

Attacks such pines as mugo, Scotch, jack, red, Japanese red.


European pine shoot moth 

Text from PSU

photos of insect and damage from Oregon State U.


Honey Bees

See Pollinators page.


Iris Borer

Macronocture onusta, the iris borer, acutally the larval form of a moth, first discovered in the 1890's in the northern suburbs of Chicago on some daylilies.

Controlloing the Iris Borer - Region 1 of American Iris Society; indepth info., includes cultural, chemical, and alternative controls.

Iris Borer - UWI Extension, brief info, borer photo.


Japanese Beetles

MI Botanical Garden - complete info, photos of plant damage


Lace bugs

OSU Fact Sheet



Millipedes - PSU Entomological Notes.

Millipedes - OSU Extension Factsheet


Multicolored Asian Lady Beetles

Multicolored Asian Lady Beetles - OSU Fact Sheet.


Periodical Cicadas

PSU Entomology fact sheet.

U of CT Postdoctoral Research Associate website with detailed photos and info. Provides link to report emergencies.


Stink Bugs Halyomorpha halys

Brown Marmorated Stink Bugs - PSU Entomology Fact Sheet



Lyme Disease - PSU College of Ag Sciences

Introduction & Disease Transmission, Epidemiology, Life Cycle of the Blacklegged Tick, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment, Lyme Disease and Dogs, Disease Prevention.

Lyme Disease - PSU Extension Circular 366; on office kiosk.


Virburnum Leaf Beetle

Viburnum Leaf Beetle Citizen Science - Cornell U.;detailed photos/text. 

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